Origin of Lighter Human Skin?

The peopling of the world is a puzzle, pieces of which are being found from time to time.

A newer analysis of DNA from ancient sources may hold the clue to why Europeans are lighter skinned than other folks around the planet.

BBC Article on origin of European lighter skin tone.


Family Tree is a Wreath.

When you look at the numbers, far enough back, one’s family tree becomes a wreath as we run out of unique ancestors.  However, this is no way abrogates the importance of ethnicity and culture to our background.

Who                            Number in generation         Birth Decade (average)

Me                               1                                                  1950’s

Parents                      2                                                  1930’s

Grandparents           4                                                 1900’s

1st        Great              8                                                  1870’s

2nd       Great              16                                                1830’s

3rd        Great              32                                               1810’s

The population of Earth is estimated to have reached its 1st Billion in 1804.

4th        Great              64                                               1780’s

5th          Great              128                                            1760’s

6th        Great              256

7th        Great              512

8th        Great              1,024

9th        Great              2,048

10th     Great              4,096                                          1570’s

11th     Great              8,192

12th     Great              16,384

13th     Great              32,768

14th     Great              65,536

15th     Great              131,072                                      1410’s

16th     Great              262,144

17th     Great              524,288

18th     Great              1,048,576

19th     Great              2,097,152

20th     Great              4,194,304                                  1290’s

21st      Great              8,388,608

22nd     Great              16,777,216

23rd     Great              33,554,432

24th     Great              67,108,864

25th     Great              134,217,728                              1110’s

26th     Great              268,435,456

27th     Great              536,870,912

28th     Great              1,073,741,874

29th     Great              2,147,483,648

30th     Great              4,294,967,296                           920’s


Have to start somewhere, and mine was March 1957 in the old Saint Mary’s maternity Hospital on Carew Street in Springfield, MA.  The building is still there, part of the Mercy Hospital campus, used as offices now.

After that, spent a little over 7 years living with my maternal grandparents on Hill St in West Springfield.  My mom, dad and me (and later my brother Leonard and Sister Anne Marie) on the ground floor.  Nonnie and Papa D’Orazio on the 1st floor and my uncles Anthony and Michael in the attic level bedroom.

In March 1964, we moved to the house on Worthen St where my mom sill lives and my sister Cathy arrived in May that year.

I was at times a brilliant and indifferent student from Nursery School to College.  However, I have loved to read since my parents taught me before i went to any school.

More, as I think of more.

But, the Hyphen…that time between Birth and Death…that will be the theme.